Critical angle and seabed scattering issues for active-sonar performance predictions in shallow water
Active sonar performance predictions (0.75 to 3 kHz) are examined in summer shallow-water environments to quantify the impact of variable seabed and watermass properties on detection. Scattering is computed with an environmentally sensitive mod$ed Lambert's Law. The results show a) unmodified Lambert's Law yields optimistic performance by a factor of up to 30 in coarse sand, and b) with environmentally-sensitive scattering, performance is poor for sands (high, reverberation) and clays (high TL) and optimum for silty areas.
SourceIn: High Frequency Seafloor Acoustics (SACLANTCEN Conference Proceedings CP-45), 1997, pp. 123-130
Del Balzo, Donald R.;
Leclere, James H.;
Collins, Mona J.